Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market

ISBN: 0965762645
ISBN 13: 9780965762649
By: Eric Schlosser

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Reader's Thoughts

Brandon T.

Eric Schlosser has made a name for himself by probing behind the scenes of popular American phenomena. He became famous for Fast Food Nation, which was later turned into a film.Schlosser's subject matter may trend towards the pop world, but his cross of investigative journalism and postmodernist sociology is both fresh and informative. It is obvious that he takes his material as seriously as any professional observer, and the reader reaps the reward of his work in the form of a much clearer understanding of the ways that American culture impacts the lives of real individuals.In this book, Schlosser explores the American black market trade, as it has developed around three much different parts of society - the world of marijuana cultivation and sale, the immigrant labor market in California's fruit fields, and the nearly legitimized pornography industry.Although there is a bit of a disconnect from section to section (which makes the book read almost like three), each is explored in detail, from multiple angles. He uses many reliable sources, interviews, histories, and his own observation to bring the reader into these rarely seen realms that nevertheless constitute indispensable columns of the American industrial/economic empire.

Rachel

(written 6-03)This was a collection of three essays, one about marijuana law, one about immigrant strawberry pickers, and one about the porn industry. I had already read the first one, found it on the internet, and liked it. The other two were just as insightful and I agree with Schlosser on all points - that the black market is too large to be ignored, that marijuana should be decriminalized, that corporations need to be regulated and the market cannot be trusted to serve the best interests of humans.However, I was disappointed in this book. It was nowhere near as good as Fast Food Nation. Not as cohesive, and the book seemed to have been hastily put together as a follow-up to FFN, riding on the wave of its success. Did Schlosser sell out? At least he got lots of press exposure for these ideas.I learned a lot from these essays but feel they were more appropriate in the setting of the Atlantic Monthly than marketed as a cohesive piece of investigative journalism. But keep up the good work, Schlosser.

Robert

Reefer Madness is not so much a collective novel as much as it is a collection of three essays with a unifying theme. The unifying theme is meant to be the undermining and corruptive “black market” of marijuana, illegal immigrant workers and the porn industry. While each essay has its strengths, the theme as a whole does not really work.The theme is weak in part because the “black market” aspects of each topic are corruptive in completely different ways. The first essay is the most effective and is about the ridiculous sentences charged to those people who produce, distribute and consume marijuana, sentences that are often vastly more severe than those passed out to violent criminals such as murderers, rapists and child molesters. The author Eric Schlosser, who also wrote Fast Food Nation, clearly has no love for big business and an unchecked profit motive. Schlosser makes the argument there is no real reason for the criminalization of marijuana other than the fact there is no money in it. If pharmaceutical companies could package it and sell it as profitably as a pill, it would probably be in every corner pharmacy. While I agree with many of the assertions Schlosser makes for the hypocritical reasons marijuana remains illegal, I am not sure if I believe pot is quite as innocuous as Schlosser suggests. The most effective part of the piece by far is Schlosser’s description of the people affected by the harsh penalties, especially one poor individual who was sentenced to life in prison for merely introducing a buyer and a seller. The section also describes the lengths to which some of these people go to avoid capture. The narrative, if nothing else, is an interesting read.Schlosser’s description of the plight of California immigrant strawberry pickers is equally effective. Much like he did with the meatpacking workers in Fast Food Nation, Schlosser illustrates a group of people with no rights who nonetheless risk everything to do backbreaking work in the hot sun for 12 hours a day because it is still better than the options back home. If nothing else, it acts as a kind reminder of some perspective when complaining about some of life’s smaller inconveniences.The last essay is by far the weakest, which was surprising. To have the porn industry detailed by a reporter of Schlosser’s pedigree seemed like an excellent opportunity to examine the hypocritical, two-faced Puritan roots of this country. While some of that is explored, the essay is far and away dominated by the story of one man who rose up through the industry, gained enormous wealth, and then lost it all and was sent to jail because of tax evasion. That’s right tax evasion. Not because he broke any ethical laws over the materials themselves, but because he skimmed millions off the top and was sent to jail for it. The guy is clearly meant to be seen as a persecuted hero but I did not entirely buy it.

Belarius

Eric Schlosser, the grade-a muckraker whose widely read Fast Food Nation catapulted him to fame, returns with Reefer Madness, dedicated to nothing less than examining the underbelly of America's black market. Through three distinct essays (dealing with marijuana, migrant workers, and pornography), he examines the history, underlying economics, policy effects, and future directions of products and services that America can neither seem to abstain from nor openly embrace.Reefer Madness is a difficult book to review because, in practice, it's actually three completely distinct essays, tied together at the front and the back. The essays have markedly different style and tone, making a comprehensive review challenging. So, I will take the easier route: briefly reviewing each section. The book's overall score is the average, weighted to how long each essay is.Reefer Madness: 74/100Schlosser's first foray into the world of the underground economy deals with the vast disparity between the harshness of marijuana prohibition and its apparent popularity. Heavy on both the legal history and status quo, Schlosser's peerless research shines, giving an unvarnished account of how pot is grown, distributed, prosecuted, and proselytized. He interviews people on both the smoking and the busting ends of the spectrum, and makes a convincing case that pot is, by income, the most profitable cash crop in the country, above corn (a position advocated by some long-time federal investigators, among others).His final conclusions are that (a) the chemical and psychological dangers of marijuana are likely far lower than those of alcohol and nicotine, (b) proper research into marijuana's properties is being systematically discouraged to keep it classifies as being higher-risk than cocaine or PCP, (c) draconian enforcement has led to America's staggering incarceration rate (which has unduly criminalized that inmate population and destroyed both lives and families), and (d) that a system of taxation and regulation would more effectively solve America's pot-related problems than the utter failure that is the War on Drugs. He makes a solid (if somewhat dry) case for these points, backed up by considerable evidence.In The Strawberry Fields: 62/100The weakest essay of the three, Schlosser's examination of the hardships of Mexican strawberry pickers in southern California suffers from an all-too-common affliction in nonfiction: irrelevance. The investigative punch of this section is largely weakened by immigration having, since the book's publication, become the new "hot" issue for American conservatives, which has led many of Schlosser's assertions to become widely known. To his credit, his treatment of the issue does a fair job of both humanizing migrants and of explaining the pressures on growers to use migrants, giving the reasons for poor labor conditions without demonizing or forgiving unnecessarily. The historical angle of the story is also a welcome addition, one rarely heard in today's rhetorical war. Still, the essay is too short and isn't an eye-opener. Schlosser could have done much better.An Empire Of The Obscene: 86/100Despite the book's title, it is the third section that is both the longest and most engaging of the three. Schlosser brilliantly weds a comprehensive examination of porn's move from underground to mainstream with the legacy of an almost unknown figure who, by all accounts, essentially controlled pornography distribution for over 30 years: Reuben Sturman. Schlosser's high-density, high-quality research alone would provide much the same interesting tone as in the first essay, but combined with the rise and fall of Reuben Sturman it becomes electric and intensely personal.Despite its lengthy exposition and its mere 103-page length, the story of Reuben Sturman could easily be an HBO TV series on par with the best serial television ever produced. The story is so incredible it can be hard to believe, with Sturman and his rival Richard Rosfelder (of the IRS) spending decades locking horns with great victories and defeats. The story has a femme fatal, a prison break, money laundering of the highest caliber, the Mob, and explosions. From his first run-in with the law in 1963 to his eventual death in 1997, Sturman waged a personal war on the U.S. government, and it's fascinating stuff.Perhaps Schlosser's strength in this section stems from his detachment to its outcome. Unlike the first two essays, which have a prescriptive tone, hard-core porn is essentially a done deal in America. While a "war on porn" has been pushed by the Bush administration, a conflict Schlosser anticipates but had not yet had a chance to see emerge, he (rightly) treats it as a futile battle: porn and prudes locked horns for decades, and porn won. As a result, Schlosser spends very little time telling us how things ought to be and can focus on telling us how it was.Final OverviewThroughout, Schlosser's research is staggering. The endnotes and bibliography make up over 20% of the book, and Schlosser cites just about every fact he asserts, a sadly waning practice in non-fiction. This helps to make his more eye-popping assertions even more striking. It's clear throughout that he isn't making any of this stuff up. Truth is stranger than fiction, and Schlosser is determined to uncover the truths about areas of American living and business that many people would rather not examine at all (in fiction or otherwise). Though it lacks the powerful, life-changing punch of Fast Food Nation, this is nevertheless an excellent book that every adult American should read.

Tony Cohen

I don't get this book at all. So there are 3 different segments of the underground economy that are covered: pot, agriculture and porn. They exist in a marginalized world, he briefly talks about them, a short conclusion is tacked on, and away we go? I had no problem with the three choices he made for describing said economy, but there was not enough relevant data to tie these choices together, and without that, I felt that each section left so much unsaid/unexplored. Sure there are loads of juicy details, but just not enough of them. A few men made porn, which is ceasing to be marginalized, the Mexicanization of agriculture relies on a brutal system of peonage that his achieved a modicum of respectability due to a cadre of lawyers working in an unjust system, and pot may have been one of the few success stories of a protectionist economy: ban imports to raise the value of goods at home. And each of these sections elicits a range of emotions: rage at injustice; frustration over stupidity; amusement over the government floundering to battle porn lords. So each section works as an individual snapshot of a problem, but without a cohesive framework to explain more about the significance of said economies, each section just sort of hangs there, incomplete and lacking the firepower it needs. I give it a three because each section is well written, but for a recommendation, I don't think that I can offer. If you are interested in either of the three previously mentioned topics, choose another, more focus tome. If you want to know what the underground economy/vast illegal activities say about the schism between reality and justice, you also have to go elsewhere. I am afraid that doesn't leave much....

Ellen

Well written, but overall badly done....don't bother. This follows Schlosser's Fast Food Nation, which was an excellent, well-researched piece of journalism. But this book is very disappointing. It is supposed to investigate three illegal markets...marijuana, illegal immigrants, and pornography. The section on illegal immigration is less than 35 pages, which is pathetic and doesn't even skim the surface. (He confines his discussion to agricultural workers, leaving our all other categories of illegal immigrant labor.) The section on pot is detailed, but still misses a lot. But the most annoying (and longest) section is on porn. While trying to convince readers that the pornographer he's focusing on was treated unjustly, he criticizes the government for treating the man like 'organized crime'. Then he describes the guy's tactics for tax evasion, intimidation, threats, and even paying people who bombed his adversaries...if that isn't organized crime than I'm a natural blonde with a weight problem. Also, what have popular authors got against footnotes? He's got oodles of references at the back of the book, but you can't really link them to statements in the body. I don't recommend this at all.

Darcia Helle

This is a powerful book. Broken into 3 parts, it deals with the history of our approach to marijuana use; our use of illegal immigrants, specifically in the strawberry fields of California; and the development of porn in our country, how it grew, and how our government's attempt to suppress it only continued to spark the flame.Eric Schlosser's meticulous research is written in an easy to understand form. He states the facts without any bias. For instance, you'll learn that a young man, with no prior record, arrested for marijuana possession can receive a longer prison sentence than a convicted murderer or rapist. And, while our country is in an uproar over illegal immigrants, our government allows these people to be used like slaves when convenient. When they are no longer needed, they are rounded up like cattle and sent back to Mexico. In the end, whether you agree with his conclusions or not, a new light is shed on a world most of us pay no attention to. And perhaps tells us that we need to get more involved.

Ob-jonny

Fantastic history of marijuana and migrant farm workers. The theme of the book is the underground industries where people are paid "under the table". The 3 themes are the marijuana market, migrant farm workers, and the porn industry. Eric Schlosser has done some great research and has presented enough facts and data to make strong conclusions on these topics. The writer states his own beliefs and the end of each section but the facts are so compelling that the reader can figure it out on their own. I never really knew the real story behind the war on drugs and the mandatory sentencing for non-violent drug offenders. It's amazing that there are so many hundreds of life sentences based on non-violent marijuana offenders. It really has to do with how well they play ball and how many names they can give. One of the characters they examined had been a middle-man on a large marijuana sale but he received a life sentence because he had no names or people to rat out and he was too stubborn to play ball. A life sentence for no real reason is just a waste of millions of tax-payer dollars and is another sign of how America is in a state of decay compared to Europe. There have been something like 700,000 Federal sentences handed out for marijuana related crimes. Each one of them will cost at least a million dollars in prison costs and the damage becomes multiplied considering the damage done to family members. Meanwhile in the Netherlands, all drugs are legal and the amount of drug use is much lower that the US. There is much more to it than that but this book shows the war on drugs to be the worst sign of government incompetence. I was amused to read that the citizens of the Virginia colony were required by law to grow hemp and that George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both grew marijuana plants as part of their farm. Yet today Virginians can receive multi-year prison sentences for growing marijuana plants.The section on migrant farm workers is also very informative and eye opening. Anyone who thinks these illegals are taking American jobs have no idea what these jobs consist of. The people picking strawberries are making good money in terms of Oaxacan peasants in the poorest area of Mexico. The idea of Americans happily taking jobs which pay a small fraction of minimum wage is silly. These migrant workers live in caves and shanty-towns filled with garbage. They work solely to send money back to desperately poor communities in places like the Mixtec indian areas of Oaxaca, Mexico. Picking strawberries is so hard that college students trying to make extra money couldn't last an hour. But the free labor is a major support for the economy of California and most people don't realize it. Americans can't do the work and it needs to be done meaning that we need those people. I guess everyone is better off but the treatment and exploitation of the migrant workers is disturbing. This is a must-read for anyone wanting to have a clear understanding of the immigration issue.

Stephen

Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market310 pages© 2003 Eric SchlosserWhat do pornography, marijuana, and migrant labor have in common? They're all factors in an underground economy, a vast web of cash-heavy transactions barred (or limited) by laws and social mores, but which generate substantial wealth for those willing to risk criminality. Reefer Madness contains thre seperate exposes on these subjects by the author of Fast Food Nation, followed by a conclusion which attempts to tie them together and glean some general lessons about the black market. Although the three don't quite fit together as well as Schlosser might hope, each piece is well worth considering on its own, pointed as well as entertaining.Although "An Empire of the Obscene" is something of an oddity (pornography isn't illegal), the preceding sections ("Reefer Madness" and "In the Strawberty Fields") address subject alive and well in American politics today. All three mix colorful history and contemporary exposition which reveal both fascinating trivia and lessons about the specific subjects and the black market in general. The underground economy is not marginal, and its size should concern us not because of potential tax revenues lost by corrupt porn kings like Reuben Sturman, but because they fundamentally alter the rules that everyone else plays by. The use of undocumented workers in California, for instance, keeps food prices artifically low and stifles innovation by allowing companies to be dependent on cheap labor, just as the American south stagnated based on its use of slave labor. Considering the conditions migrant workers are forced to live in, the comparison to slavery is most apt. Despite the long-term consequences of allowing this behavior to go on -- tolerating it because it keeps food cheap -- the US government's attitude toward companies that seek out migrant labor is far too lenient. In other cases, the government is far too heavy-handed. This is the case with marijuana; Schlosser covers our bizaare obsession with it, which far exceed the concern the facts would merit we have. In what other nation can a person receive a lighter sentence for murder than selling a largely harmless drug? Considering the US's economic woes, decriminalizing the drug would go a long way in freeing up police and prison resources that could be better used elsewhere.Schlosser believes that a study of the black market can teach us about the market in general -- and namely, impart the lesson that Adam Smith's 'invisible hand' is not always one of providence. It is one, in fact, that can lead to great abuses (like exploitation of migrant labor). What they excel in providing us outside the bounds of the law tells us secrets about ourselves; that we have a 'deep psychosis' regarding marijuana, for instance, and that Puritanical rejection of sexuality is out of line with human nature. Reefer Madness is a call for sensibly-informed moderation, although it misses one point certainly worth mentioning, that foolish laws, or the lack of laws when they are crucially needed, saps the public's respect for law in general.Choice quotations:We have been told for years to bow down before 'the market'. We have placed our faith in the laws of supply and demand. What has been forgotten, or ignored, is that the market rewards only efficiency. Every other human value gets in its way. [...] No deity that man have ever worshiped is more ruthless and more hollow than the free market unchecked. [...] p. 108Black markets will always be with us. But they will recede in importance when our public morality is consistent with our private one. The underground is a good measure of the progress and health of nations. When much is wrong, much needs to be hidden.p. 221Related:Off the Books: the Underground Economy of the Urban Poor, Sudhir VenkateshFast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Eric Schlosser

Patrick McCoy

Eric Schlosser’s Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market is every bit as interesting as his excellent and informative previous book Fast Food Nation. The first section “Reefer Madness” looks at the underground economy of marijuana. It underscores the ridiculous mandatory sentencing drug laws that keep non-violent, low-level drug dealers in jail longer than murderers, rapists, and child molesters. Just another holdover form the overzealous Regan administration’s “War On Drugs”-just another misguided governmental policy like prohibition and anti-pornography crusaders (more on this later). Let’s just legalize it and tax the hell out of it like cigarettes and alcohol. The second section, ”In The Strawberry Fields”, is an investigative piece about the exploitation of illegal immigrants and the underclass as laborers in Californian strawberry fields, low pay, no benefits, improper housing, poor conditions, etc…It’s tantamount to slave labor, sweat shop style management ethic that we ignore now that most of it takes place offshore in developing countries like China and Vietnam. The whole book makes you want to become an activist, but it also details the system and mentality that you’re up against in these situations-so it seems futile. The last section details the folly of the government’s demonization of pornography, which seems ridiculous in retrospect since Disney has holdings in pornography these days where hard core images are just a mouse click away. What a waste of time, money, and resources that was. As usual, Schlosser has done an admirable job researching his subjects in revealing the folly of man.

Justyn

** spoiler alert ** In Reefer Madness, Eric Schlosser thoroughly examines the vast underground economy in the United States. The book is made up of three essays discussing marijuana in the black market, illegal immigration/cheap labor, and the porn industry. Throughout his essay on marijuana, I like how Schlosser doesn’t just state statistics, but actually goes into detail on the topic. He explains overly-harsh penalties for marijuana dealers, growers, and smokers with real life facts and examples. This is shown when he tells the story of a man named Mark Young. Young lived in Indiana where the average sentence of a convicted rape crime is eight years. He became the middleman in a marijuana grow operation, introducing two growers to a place to grow and buyers. The men, Claude Atkinson and Ernest Montgomery, began their grow operation and gave Young $100 for every pound they sold. Eventually they got caught through a federal raid of one of their houses and found Young’s name in a briefcase. Young couldn’t talk as he had no information that the other men wouldn’t provide, and he received life in prison without parole for conspiring to manufacture and distribute marijuana in a quantity in excess of 1,000 plants. This part of the book was the most interesting to me because of the actual examples and the seriousness. He included facts such as 3 million Americans smoke marijuana on a daily basis, which really kept the 64 pages enjoyable. I liked Schlosser’s point of view on the issue, although he didn’t include many negatives of marijuana smoking or decriminalization.The second essay in Reefer Madness was labeled “In the Strawberry Fields.” Although the shortest part of the book, I also found it to be the most boring. Illegal Immigration isn’t something that I am interested in and enthusiastic about but I gave the essay a chance. Schlosser takes a different view in this essay, going after the bosses who hire illegal immigrants and the system of illegal immigration itself, not the government as in his other essays. It basically talks about immigrants from Mexico and other bordering countries working for under our minimum wage with nothing new brought to the table, reiterating information that is widely already known and uninteresting.The last essay in Reefer Madness is titled “An Empire of the Obscene.” This essay was definitely very interesting all the way through although it was the longest. It focused around a man by the name of Rueben Sturman, who was a huge figure in the porn industry up until the 90’s. It goes through his business, how he kept in the shadows. He hired Canadians to run his stores and smaller businesses, taking some of the profits from the peep shows and booths that he placed throughout the United States. He became a multi-millionaire through the porn industry, and evaded his taxes through offshore and foreign bank accounts under pseudonyms. Eventually it caught up to him and, after many court cases, he decided to ease out of the business, shredding documents and handing over companies to trusted friends and business partners. Schlosser throws in many interesting facts in this section such as the fact that the VHS became popular through porn because when it first came out no movie producers were using them.Overall, I liked this book. It got a little boring through some parts as essays aren’t my favorite things to read, but this book was filled with a lot of information that got me to look further into information that I found interesting and it is definitely a must read if this is your type of book.

Jason

Reefer Madness is a collection of 3 extended essays about the underground market in America for marijuana, migrant workers, and pornography. The author has focused primarily on the economic aspects of the underground. The topics themselves are quite interesting. Reading about the strict laws against marijuana use are both frightening and mind-boggling. How can consuming something as harmless as a joint warrant a harsher sentence than what is often handed out to murderers or other violent criminals? How is the US contributing to the influx of illegal immigrants in the US by failing to regulate agricultural growers who employ migrant laborers from Mexico for little to nothing? What does the overwhelming consumption of porn in the US reveal about how out of touch mainstream thought and criticism regarding porn are from what many people feel about it privately? The point being there is never an absence of food for thought. Schlosser feels that few laws albeit strictly enforced ones and government regulation of certain areas like business and worker's rights are necessary to produce the kind of equal and fair economy and country that most people espouse. Few would disagree with him there. Ultimately though, this book is somewhat stilted and doesn't form a very cohesive whole. While some of the essays seem to hold great promise they aren't developed enough and seem to be a little helter-skelter. As if the author gathered up his information from previous papers and interviews and decided to just throw it together to form a book. You understand his position but not convincingly. I am sure the author was riding a high after his previous success with Fast Food Nation but this book fizzles and eventually becomes less than hoped for. Once again, interesting food for thought but to feel sufficiently informed about these subjects you'll have to turn elsewhere for more detailed and channeled knowledge.

Jeff

Another well documented book from Schlosser. This one shines light on three taboos in the American culture: marijuana, pornography, and illegal labor. Who is keeping marijuana out of the marketplace and why? Where did pornography get it's start and who profits from it? Would our agriculture industry and economy collapse without illegal immigrants breaking their backs in the fields? Schlosser uncovers the answers to all of the madness in... Reefer Madness.

Rogelio Garcia

Actually, I listened to this book on tape--one winter as I drove to Hell Paso from SLC--it's a 15 cassette book, perfect for the dry silent Utah dessert. Most painful and anger producing was the long detailed story about the guy who got 50 plus years in prison for introducing two of his friends to one another. The two friends sold/bought some gange from one another and six months later the friend who introduced them was put in prison--this being his third strike. Made me paranoid--so paranoid that when a cop pulled me over in south Utah I gave off all the wrong vibes. He searched my car and found nothing but Percy-hair, which is very unsmokable.

David Sarkies

By the author of Fast Food Nation, this book contains three case studies each dealing with an area of the black market in America, namely marijuana, immigrant workers in the strawberry fields on California, and the hard core porn industry. As one can expect from Schlosser, it is a thoroughly researched and objective view of these industries, and does not necessarily try to reach some left wing conspiratorial conclusion. Basically there are lots of books on marijuana in the United States and the nature of the war on drugs. Being an Australian where possession of small amounts (up to three ounces in some places) is pretty much a misdemeanor that results in a small fine, it is difficult to understand the nature of the war on drugs. In a way the war itself is scary, because it has been suggested that if you are caught with even one joint in the United States you can be classified as a dealer, locked up, and have all of your possessions confiscated, even before you have been convicted. In a way I believe that this is a really heavy handed approach, particularly since the laws date back to the 1930s, where Dupont pushed for the criminalisation of marijuana so that it could dominate the textile industry. Another argument is also that since it is only recently that marijuana has become a popular anglo-saxon drug (up until the sixties, marijuana was predominantly a Mexican pleasure, and its narcotic purposes were only used in cure-all potions made by chemists, who in those days, did not necessarily need a license to practice). Unfortunately, it is very difficult to access anything these days on the history of drugs and drug use since many of these documentaries are generally not made. In a way, it feels as if marijuana did not exists prior to the sixties, and that modern drugs such as meth-amphetamine did not exist until the late 90s (which is not true because Hitler used it during World War II and also apparently fed it to his troops). It appears however that this book is about the black market and how the market influences all of our lives and how in a way we are all exposed to it, whether we smoke pot, or rent dodgy videos from those dodgy video stores that have no windows. This is where the second case study comes into play and that is in regards to illegal immigrants. Schlosser looks particularly are strawberry growers, but this applies to a lot of industries across the United States (and while it happens in Australia, the fact that we do not have any land borders with poorer nations, we have a lot less illegal immigrants than do the United States). The reason illegal immigrants are so popular is because the laws do not apply to them, so they can be paid under the minimum wage, which means more profits for the corporation, and that they are not restricted by the unfair dismissal laws. While the section on the porn industry also applies to the black market as well, much of this has more to do with the freedom of speech amendment than it has to do with the black market (even though while they industry was fighting the obscenity laws the profits coming from the porn industry were effectively apart of the black market). Mind you this section surprised me because I was expecting it to deal with Hugh Heffner or Larry Flynt, but they barely made a mention in this section. I guess the reason is that we are dealing not with what is termed as soft porn (if there is such a thing) but rather with hard core pornography. Mind you, porn has been around as long as there have been people willing to pay for it (even though before photography, we had to pay for live shows, and then we might as well go to a brothel).

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